Two of the most important factors in Rio Grande turkey habitat are usable space and the interspersion of habitat types. Usable space refers to the amount of area a population requires to fulfill biological, behavioral, and physiological requirements. Therefore, population size would logically increase as the amount of usable space increases, and as usable space decreases, so should population size. Wild turkeys typically require large areas of usuable space to support viable, sustaining populations. With this fact, if suitable habitat exists, but only available on a small scale (such as a small ranch) then not even the best turkey management program can create usable space.
A turkey’s range is defined as the area it uses while engaged in normal activities of gathering food, breeding, and caring for offspring. Total range is difficult to determine for the life of most animals due to difficulties following individuals throughout their entire lifespan. As a result, biologists often report seasonal and annual ranges. Research conducted in Texas found that annual range sizes vary between 3,500 and 6,500 acres. This is why habitat conservation is becoming increasingly important! Seasonal range shifts occur due to changes in resources and habitat requirements. Rio Grande turkey are highly mobile, and annual movements can vary between 5 to 25 miles! Rio Grande wild turkeys do not migrate, but they do exhibit pronounced seasonal shifts and may have distinct summer and winter ranges.
Because of their mobility, Rio Grande turkey ranges often exceed the size of a single property. Small properties of less than 1,000 acres may still provide essential components of Rio Grande wild turkey habitat requirements. For example, areas containing roost sites or quality nesting or brooding areas are vital, so alteration of these areas can significantly impact wild turkey populations. Therefore, small acreage landowners may benefit from working cooperatively with neighbors to collectively provide essential components of Rio Grande wild turkey habitat.
Rio Grande turkey require two basic haibtat types, wooded areas and open areas. The amount and interspersion of these two types may determine habitat quality and are essential is attracting and maintaining turkey populations. One study in the northeast found that in areas with greater interspersion of forests and open areas supported larger turkey populations. Habitat suitability increased by providing smaller, irregularly shaped patches rather than a few large patches. This effectively increases the amount of diversity. Although the proportion of wooded and open areas may vary between and within ecoregions, habitat will always consist of the same two components. This is particulary important with the proliferation of small land ownerships. It’s something that all turkey management programs must address, but can land fragmentation and wild turkey populations can co-exist if the turkey’s habitat requirements are met.